Harvard Bibliography Protocol


In the text a reference identified by means of an author's name should be followed by the date of the reference in parentheses and page number(s) where appropriate.
"…as identified by Schlyter (1987:289)".
"People living in poverty are more vulnerable to the exigencies of inadequate shelter (Skinner and Rodell, 1987: 26; Schlyter, 1987: 287)."

Where an author is directly quoted, the quote should be placed in parentheses and in italics.
"The upgrading of squatter settlements both stimulates, and is stimulated by, the commercialization of squatter housing." (Schlyter, 1987: 286)

When there are more than two authors, only the first author's name should be mentioned, followed by et al. In the event that an author cited has had two or more works published during the same year, the reference, both in the text and in the reference list, should be identified by a lower case letter like "a" or "b" after the date to distinguish the works.
(Struyk, 1988a)


References to books, journal articles, articles in collections and conference or workshop proceedings, and technical reports should be listed at the end of the article in alphabetical order. Unpublished observations, personal communications, etc. should not be included in the reference list but should only be mentioned in the article text
(B. Jones, personal communication)

References to books
Skinner, R.J., and Rodell, M.J., (eds.), (1987). People, poverty and shelter (book title in italics), London: Methuen.

Chapter in edited book
Rodwin, L., and Sanyal, B., (1987). "Shelter, settlement, and development: An overview", in Rodwin, L., (ed), Shelter, Settlement & Development (book title in italics), Boston: Allen and Unwin: 39-47.

Journal Article
Schlyter, A., (1987). "Commercialisation of housing in upgraded squatter areas: the case of George, Lusaka, Zambia", African Urban Quarterly (Journal title in italics) 2, 3 (August): 287-97.

Conference proceedings
Milonas, S., (2002) "Evaluating alternative scenarios for exisiting building stock with the use of assessment tools." In: Pettersen (ed.), Sustainable Building 2002: 3rd International Conference on Sustainable Building, 23-25 September 2002, Oslo: Ecobuild. On CD-Rom.

Struyk, R.J., (1988). Assessing housing needs and policy alternatives in developing countries (report title in italics), Washington DC.: Urban Institute Report 88-4.

Newspaper article
Quinn, S., (1999). "Homeless turn to estate agency for squatters", The Guardian (Newspaper title in italics), 6/8/99: 32
The Guardian (Newspaper title in italics) (1999) Editorial, 21/10/99: 23.